文章摘要
陈超,徐光星.朱丹溪医学的理学内涵探微[J].浙江中医药大学学报,2024,48(3):288-294.
朱丹溪医学的理学内涵探微
The Connotation of Neo-Confucianism in ZHU Danxi Medicine
DOI:10.16466/j.issn1005-5509.2024.03.006
中文关键词: 朱丹溪  金元医学  理学  格物致知  太极动静  以理节欲  阳有余阴不足论  相火论
英文关键词: ZHU Danxi  Jinyuan medicine  Neo-confucianism  knowledge of a subject  Tai Chi movement  rational abstinence  the theory of excess of Yang and deficiency of Yin  the theory of Xiang fire
基金项目:
作者单位
陈超 浙江中医药大学基础医学院 杭州 310053 
徐光星 浙江中医药大学图书馆 
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中文摘要:
      [目的] 探讨朱丹溪医学的理学内涵。[方法] 结合医学与哲学的研究方法,基于朱丹溪医学论著及相关理学认识,从“认识观”“运动观”“修养观”三方面探讨丹溪医学的理学内涵。[结果] 朱丹溪受到“理一分殊”的思想影响,视医学为践行儒家理想的途径;运用“格物穷理”的认识方法,提出了“阳有余阴不足论”“相火论”等重要医学理论;基于“动为天地之心”的运动观,认识到气机运动、“相火”恒动对人体生命的重要意义;基于“物极必反”“君子慎动”的运动观,认识到“相火”妄动对人体的巨大危害,主张将“慎动”思想用于养生;基于“心统性情”的修养观,提出“君火主宰相火”,强调发挥“君火”之“心”的能动作用,涵养道德之“性”,节制欲念之“情”,维续“相火”恒动,裨补生命;将“主静无欲”的修养观运用于养生却疾,要求通过节制食欲与色欲,使人的自然情欲合乎儒家之“理”,方能苛疾不起,尽终天年。[结论] 朱丹溪医学理学内涵丰富,是宋元儒学变革影响医学创新的有力见证。丹溪“援理入医”,一方面,为医学创新构建起强有力的理学支撑,使其医学理论上升到“天理”的高度,从而在医学争鸣的金元时期为人信服;另一方面,亦彰显出“天理”作为宇宙法则包罗万象的普遍性与至高无上的权威性。
英文摘要:
      [Objective] To explore the connotation of neo-Confucianism in ZHU Danxi medicine. [Methods] Combining the research methods of medicine and philosophy, based on ZHU Danxi’s medical writings and related knowledge of neo-Confucianism, the connotation of neo-Confucianism of Danxi medicine was discussed from three aspects: “cognition view” “sports view” “cultivation view”. [Results] ZHU Danxi was influenced by the thought of “one principle and different justics” and regarded medicine as the way to practice Confucian ideal. Using the understanding method of “thinking phyics”, ZHU Danxi put forward some important medical theories such as “the theory of excess of Yang and deficiency of Yin” and “the theory of fire”. Based on the concept of “movement was the heart of heaven and earth”, the important significance of Qi movement and constant movement of “Xiang fire” to human life was realized. Based on the sports concept of “extreme things must be reversed” and “the gentleman should be careful to move”, the author realized the great harm to the human body caused by the rash movement of “fire” and advocated the idea of “careful movement” for health preservation. Based on the cultivation view of “heart regulating temperament”, the author put forward “king fire mastering prime minister fire”, emphasized the active role of “heart” of “king fire”, cultivated the “nature” of morality, controlled the “emotion” of desire, and maintained the constant movement of “corresponding fire” and supplemented life. Applying the cultivation view of “mastering static without desire” to health but disease required that through tempering appetite and lust, people’s natural desires conformed to the Confucian “reason”, in order to be no severely ill and spend the whole life. [Conclusion] ZHU Danxi’s medical science is rich in connotation, which is a powerful witness of the influence of the reform of Confucianism on medical innovation in Song and Yuan Dynasties. On the one hand, Danxi’s “aid theory into medicine” built a strong support for medical innovation, and made his medical theory rise to the height of “heaven theory”, so that he was convinced in the Jinyuan period of medical contention; On the other hand, it also demonstrated the all-encompassing universality and supreme authority of “heavenly principles” as cosmic laws.
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